UPSC (Union Public Service Commission)

What is UPSC?

It is a independent constitutional body which conducts various competitive examinations to recruit officers for various government services.It is India’s premier agency which recruits officers for various posts for multiple examinations. It conducts various exams ie civil services examination, combined defence services examination, combined medical services examination, labour commissioner’s examination. Those who qualify in the final list serve in various departments and sectors in the government at higher positions in government machinery. There is huge scope for opportunities for personal growth and promote growth of organisation you are serving. Officers have decision making power and complementary responsibilities.
But before you make to the final list the UPSC journey is a tumultuous journey full of excitement, joy and challenges too. A student has to read multiple areas and have command over them to make it to the final list.
It is the most coveted yet challenging exam in the country. Lakhs of aspirants appear every year but only few make it to the final list. There are several reasons why hardworking and dedicated students don’t make it to the final list. The most common reason is lack of directed and focused guidance. You have to plan your journey in advance and be mindful of every decision you make during your preparation.
Being a highly competitive exam, every mark holds immense importance .You have to strategise yourself well amongst competing priorities. You need to have a clear vision of outcomes of your efforts and need to be self motivated in times of challenges too. There will be disqualification despite efforts at times and you have to rise up again in these times also.

What is Civil Services Exam?

It is a ALL INDIA COMPETITIVE EXAM conducted by the UPSC which is conducted every year in three stages.


Paper-I (General Studies)-(200 marks) Duration:02 hours

  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World
  • Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System,Panchayati Raj, Public Policy,Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion,Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.
  • General Science.

Paper-II (CSAT)-(200 marks) Duration:02 hours

  • Comprehension.
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
  • Decision making and problem solving.
  • General mental ability.
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level),Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. — Class X level);
  • Note:-Paper-II of the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination will be a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.
  • Note:-The questions will be of multiple choice, objective type.
It is the stage of elimination Nearly 14k students write mains every year those who pass prelims from total of nearly 10 lakhs.


The written examination will consist of the following papers :—

Paper Subject Marks
Paper-A (One of the Indian Language to be selected by the candidate from the Languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution) 300
Paper-B English 300
Papers to be counted for merit
Paper-I Essay 250
Paper-II General Studies-I (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and
Geography of the World and Society)
Paper-III General Studies-II (Governance, Constitution, Polity,
Social Justice and International relations)
Paper-IV General Studies-III (Technology, Economic Development,
Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)
Paper-V General Studies-IV (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude) 250
Paper-VI Optional Subject – Paper I 250
Paper-VII Optional Subject – Paper II 250
Sub Total (Written test) 1750


Personality test-275 marks
Time varies from 30 minutes to 60 minutes

The Candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his/her career. He/she will be asked questions on matters of general interest. The object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of competent and unbiased observers. The test is intended to judge the mental calibre of a candidate. In broad terms, this is really an assessment of not only his/her intellectual qualities but also social traits and his/her interest in current affairs. Some of the qualities to be judged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, clear and logical exposition, a balance of judgement, variety and depth of interest, ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral integrity.

The Technique of the interview is not that of a strict cross-examination but of a natural, though directed and purposive conversation which is intended to reveal the mental qualities of the candidate.

The Interview test is not intended to be a test either of the specialised or general knowledge of the candidates which has been already tested through their written papers. Candidates are expected to have taken an intelligent interest not only in their special subjects of academic study but also in the events which are happening around them both within and outside their own state or country as well as in modern currents of thought and in new discoveries which should rouse the curiosity of well-educated youth.



CSE is a competitive exam conducted by UPSC for the recruitment of elite IAS, IPS, IRS, IFS and other Group A, Group B services. UPSC Civil Services Exam is also popularly called as IAS exam since it is the most preferred services and reputed government services in India. UPSC IAS exam is conducted in three phases – Prelims, Mains and Interview.

UPSC CSE (Civil Service Exam) Exam 2021 - Notification, Dates, Eligibility

UPSC announces the notice for holding the UPSC (Civil Services Examination) consistently in the month of January for the Preliminary Test to be held in May, of that year.Applications are welcomed by UPSC till February of that year.

UPSC Civil Service Exam 2021 Details

Name of Examination UPSC CSE (Civil Services Exam)
Conducting body UPSC Union Public Service Commission 
Exam Type  Yearly
Mode of Exam Offline ( Prelims and Mains)
Total No. of Vacancies
Will be released in the official notification
Number of candidates apply for the exam Approximate 10-12 Lacs
Total Number of Services included in exam 24

Important Dates For UPSC Civil Service Exam 2021

Notification Release Date 04th March 2021
Download Here
Application Form Filling 04th March 2021
Apply Here
UPSC IAS  Prelims Admit Card Release Date May 2021 (Tentative)
 UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Date 27th June 2021
UPSC IAS Prelims Result Date Mid-July, 2021 (Tentative)
UPSC IAS Mains Exam Date 17th September 2021

UPSC Civil Service Exam Eligibility Criteria 2021


For All India Services (IAS and IPS), the candidate must be a citizen of India.

For Other Services like IRS, IAAS, IRTS etc., the candidate must be either

  1. a Citizen of India, or a Citizen of Nepal, or a Subject of Bhutan, or a Tibetan refugee, who came over to India before 1st January 1962 with the intention of permanently settling in India, or a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia or Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India.

Educational Qualification (UPSC)

Candidates must hold the graduation or equivalent qualification from the recognized universities.

Age limit (UPSC)

The lower age limit for UPSC IAS exam 2020 is 21 years as on August 2020 and the upper age limit is 32 years.
The age relaxation is provided for OBC, SC, ST, Physically challenged and Ex-servicemen. The age relaxation detail is mentioned below:

Category Upper age limit after relaxation
OBC 35 years
SC / ST 37 years
Physically Challenged 42 years
Ex-Servicemen 37 years
Defense Services Personnel disabled 35 years
ECOs/SSCOs – completed five years of Military Service 37 years

Number Attempts (UPSC)

UPSC provides 6 attempts IAS exam in general Category, For OBC the number of attempts is 9 and SC / ST – there is no restriction on number of attempts.

Read More: UPSC 

UPSC IAS Application Form 2021

Check the procedure to fill the form for UPSC IAS Exam 2021

  • Check the eligibility for UPSC IAS exam before start applying.
  • Visit UPSC official website and click on “Online Application For Various Examinations of UPSC”
  • Fill the details asked in Part 1 of Registration and complete the process of Part 1 of UPSC IAS prelims exam application
  • Login to Part II registration by entering your date of birth and registration id and make the payment, upload photo, signature and ID details to complete the application process.
  • Confirmation email will be sent to your registered email once IAS application form filling is done.

List of posts under UPSC Civil Services Exam

  1. UPSC Civil Services Exam (CSE) – Group A Services
  2. Indian Administrative Services (IAS)
  3. Indian Civil Accounts Services
  4. Indian Foreign Services (IFS)
  5. Indian Railway Traffic Services (IRTS)
  6. Indian Police Services (IPS)
  7. Indian Railway Accounts Services (IRAS)
  8. Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Services
  9. Indian Railway Personnel Services
  10. Indian Audit and Accounts Services (IAAS)
  11. Indian Railway Protection Force (Assistant Security Commissioner)
  12. Indian Revenue Services (Customs and Central Excise) – IRS Customs
  13. Indian Defence Estates Services
  14. Indian Defence Accounts Services
  15. Indian Information Services (Junior Grade)
  16. Indian Revenue Services (I.T.) – IRS (I.T.)
  17. Indian Trade Services, Group ‘A’ (Gr. III)
  18. Indian Ordnance Factories Services (Assistant Works Manager, Administration)
  19. Indian Corporate Law Services
  20. Indian Postal Services (IPoS)

UPSC Civil Services Exam (CSE) – Group B Services

  1. Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Services (Section Officer’s Grade)
  2. Pondicherry Civil Services
  3. Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu, and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Services
  4. Pondicherry Police Services
  5. Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu, and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Services

UPSC IAS Exam Pattern

UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Pattern

The UPSC IAS Prelims exam is divided into two papers: Paper 1 for General Studies and Paper 2 for Civil Services Aptitude Test.

Number of Papers 2
Type of Questions MCQs
Number of Questions in GS Paper 1 100
Number of Questions in GS Paper 2 80
Total Marks 400
Exam Duration 2 Hours
Negative Marks 1/3rd marks will be deducted for wrong answers
Medium of Exam English and Hindi
Mode of Exam Offline – Mark answers on OMR Sheet
Cut off Marks based on GS Paper 1 alone (GS Paper 2 Qualifying in nature)

Note: Paper 2 or the CSAT paper is a qualifying paper and the cut-off marks are 33% of the total marks of the CSAT paper. A candidate needs to score 66 marks (the 33% cut-off score) to qualify for the UPSC IAS exam mains. The total marks are 200.

UPSC IAS Mains Pattern

Total Number of Papers in UPSC Mains Exam 9
Qualifying papers – marks not included in the merit 2 (English and Indian Language*)
Competitive papers – marks included in merit 7 (1 Essay Paper, 4 GS Papers, 2 Optional Papers)
Exam Type Subjective
Competitive papers marks 250 Marks for each paper
Duration of Exam 3 hours for each paper
Total Marks in UPSC IAS Mains exam 1750 Marks
Exam Mode Offline
Medium of Exam English, Hindu and all Indian Languages listed under schedule 8 of Indian Constitution


*Note: The only exception to the paper A format on Indian Language is for candidates belonging to or appearing from the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Sikkim.

UPSC IAS Interview Pattern

UPSC shortlist candidates based on the performance in IAS Mains exam. Qualified candidates need to appear before the UPSC board for interview. The IAS interview is conducted to assess the personality of candidates. The marks alloted for IAS interview is 275 marks

UPSC IAS Syllabus

UPSC provides the IAS exam syllabus at the time of notification every year. In the syllabus there is no change since the 2015 exam.

Detailes UPSC Syllabus for IAS examination


GS Paper 1 (UPSC) GS Paper 2 (CSAT) UPSC
Modern History and INM Comprehension
India and World Geography Logical Reasoning
Polity and Governance Decision Making
Economic and Social Development General Mental Ability & Data Interpretation
Ecology and Environment Class 10 Level numeracy
Science and Technology Interpersonal Skills and Communication
Current Affairs English language comprehension

UPSC IAS / UPSC Civil Service Exam -Mains Syllabus

Paper UPSC Syllabus Topics Marks
Paper A Indian languages (candidates should be select one of the Indian languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of Indian Constitution). (Qualifying) 300
Paper B English (Qualifying) 300
UPSC Paper I Essay 250
 UPSC Paper II General Studies I (Indian heritage and culture, History and Geography of India and the World) 250
UPSC Paper III General Studies II (Governance, constitution, polity, social justice and International relations)management 250
UPSC Paper IV General Studies III (Technology, Economic Development, biodiversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management) 250
UPSC Paper V General Studies IV (ethics, integrity and aptitude) 250
UPSC Paper VI and VII Two papers on optional. Candidate should be opted subject from the list provided by UPSC. 500

List of UPSC CSE Mains Optional Subject



1. Introduction :
Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration, Wilson’s vision of Public Administration, Evolution of the discipline and its present status. New Public Administration, Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public Management.
2. Administrative Thought :
Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory; Weber’s bureaucratic model its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (MaryParker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others); Functions of the Executive (C.I.Barnard); Simon’s decision-making theory; Participative Management (R. Likert, C. Argyris, D.McGregor.)
3. Administrative Behaviour :
Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories content, process and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Modem:
4. Organisations :
Theories systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies; Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc, and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships; Regulatory Authorities; Public-Private Partnerships.
5. Accountability and Control :
Concepts of accountability and control; Legislative, Executive and judicial control over administration; Citizen and Administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations; Civil society; Citizen’s Charters; Right to Information; Social audit.
6. Administrative Law :
Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Administrative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tribunals.
7.Comparative Public Administration :
Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different countries; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models and their critique.
8. Development Dynamics :
Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; ‘Anti-development thesis’; Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries; Women and development the self-help group movement.
9. Personnel Administration :
Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pray and service conditions; employer-employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct; Administrative ethics.
10. Public Policy :
Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.
11. Techniques of Adminstrative Improvement :
Organisation and methods, Work study and work management; e-governance and information technology; Management aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM.
12. Financial Administration :
Monetary and fiscal policies: Public borrowings and public debt Budgets types and forms; Budgetary process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit.


1. Evolution of Indian Administration :
Kautilya Arthashastra; Mughal administration; Legacy of British rule in politics and administration Indianization of Public services, revenue administration, district Administration,local self Government. .
2. Philosophical and Constitutional framework of Government :
Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism; Political culture; Bureaucracy and democracy; Bureaucracy and development.
3. Public Sector Undertakings :
Public sector in modern India; Forms of Public Sector Undertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability and control; Impact of liberalization and privatization.
4. Union Government and Administration :
Executive, Parliament, Judiciary-structure, functions, work processes; Recent trends; Intra-governmental relations; Cabinet Secretariat; Prime Minister’s Office; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Departments; Boards; Commissions;Attached offices; Field organizations.
5. Plans and Priorities :
Machinery of planning; Role, composition and functions of of the Planning Commission and the National Development Council; ‘Indicative’ planning; Process of plan formulation at Union and State levels; Constitutional Amendments (1992) and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice.
6. State Government and Administration :
Union-State administrative, legislative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Governor; Chief Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates.
7. District Administration since Independence :
Changing role of the Collector; Union-State-local relations; Imperatives of development management and law and order administration; District administration and democratic decentralization.
8. Civil Services :
Constitutional position; Structure, recruitment, training and capacity building; Good governance initiatives; Code of conduct and discipline; Staff associations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mechanism; Civil service neutrality; Civil service activism.
9. Financial Management :
Budget as a political instrument; Parliamentary control of public expenditure; Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area; Accounting techniques; Audit; Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller and Auditor
General of India.
10. Administrative Reforms since Independence :
Major concerns; Important Committees and Commissions; Reforms in financial management and human resource development; Problems of implementation.
11. Rural Development :
Institutions and agencies since Independence; Rural development programmes: foci and
strategies; Decentralization and Panchayati Raj; 73rd Constitutional amendment.
12. Urban Local Government :
Municipal governance: main features, structures, finance and problem areas; 74th Constitutional Amendment; Global-local debate; New localism; Development dynamics, politics and administration with special reference to city management.
13. Law and Order Administration:
British legacy; National Police Commission; Investigative agencies; Role of Central and State Agencies including para military forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insurgency and terrorism; Criminalisation of politics and administration; Police-public relations; Reforms in Police.
14. Significant issues in Indian Administration:
Values in public service; Regulatory Commissions; National Human Rights Commission;Problems of administration in coalition regimes; Citizen administration interface; Corruption and administration; Disaster management.


Physical Geography :
1. Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.
2. Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.
3. Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans;Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves,currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.
4. Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
5. Environmental Geography : Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
Human Geography :
1. Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
2. Economic Geography : World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location
patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.
3. Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population; Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and
policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements;Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
4. Regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
1. Physical Setting : Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.
2. Resources : Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
3. Agriculture : Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming;
Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.
4. Industry : Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel,aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special
Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.
5. Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones;Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
6.Cultural Setting : Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
7. Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies.
8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
9. Political Aspects : Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs;Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
10. Contemporary Issues : Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution;Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.
NOTE : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.


1. Sociology(UPSC) – The Discipline:
(a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.
(b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
(c) Sociology and common sense.
2. Sociology as Science:
(a) Science, scientific method and critique.
(b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
(c) Positivism and its critique.
(d) Fact value and objectivity.
( e) Non-positivist methodologies.
3. Research Methods and Analysis:
(a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
(b) Techniques of data collection.
(c ) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
4. Sociological Thinkers:
(a) Karl Marx – Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
(b) Emile Durkhteim – Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
(c) Max Weber – Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
(d) Talcolt Parsons – Social system, pattern variables.
(e) Robert K. Merton – Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
(f) Mead – Self and identity.
5. Stratification and Mobility :
(a) Concepts – equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
(b) Theories of social stratification – Structural func tionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
(c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
(d) Social mobility – open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
6. Works and Economic Life :
(a) Social organization of work in different types of society – slave society, feudal society, industrial capitalist society.
(b) Formal and informal organization of work.
(c) Labour and society.
7. Politics and Society:
(a) Sociological theories of power.
(b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties.
(c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
(d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
8. Religion and Society :
(a) Sociological theories of religion.
(b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamen talism.
9. Systems of Kinship:
(a) Family, household, marriage.
(b) Types and forms of family.
(c) Lineage and descent.
(d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
(e) Contem porary trends.
10. Social Change in Modern Society :
(a) Sociological theories of social change.
(b) Development and dependency.
(c) Agents of social change.
(d) Education and social change.
(e) Science, technology and social change.
A. Introducing Indian Society :
(i) Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society :

(a) Indology (G.S. Ghure).
(b) Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).
(c) Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).
(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :
(a) Social background of Indian nationalism.
(b) Modernization of Indian tradition.
(c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
(d) Social reforms.
B. Social Structure:
(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:

(a) The idea of Indian village and village studies.
(b) Agrarian social structure— evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
(ii) Caste System:
(a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
(b) Features of caste system.
(c) Untouchability-forms and perspectives
(iii) Tribal Communities in India:
(a) Definitional problems.
(b) Geographical spread.
(c) Colonial policies and tribes.
(d) Issues of integration and autonomy.
(iv) Social Classes in India:
(a) Agrarian class structure.
(b) Industrial class structure.
(c) Middle classes in India.
(v) Systems of Kinship in India:
(a) Lineage and descent in India.
(b) Types of kinship systems.
(c) Family and marriage in India.
(d) Household dimensions of the family.
(e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division oflabour.
(vi) Religion and Society :
(a) Religious communities in India.
(b) Problems of religious minorities.
C. Social Changes in India:
(i) Visions of Social Change in India:

(a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
(b) Constitution, law and social change.
(c) Education and social change.
(ii) Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:
(a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives,poverty alleviation schemes.
(b) Green revolution and social change.
(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.
(d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
(a) Evolution of modern industry in India.
(b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
(c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
(d) Informal sector, child labour.
(e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
(iv) Politics and Society :
(a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
(b) Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
(c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
(d) Secularization.
(v) Social Movements in Modern India :
(a) Peasants and farmers movements.
(b) Women’s movement.
(c) Backward classes & Dalit movements.
(d) Environmental movements.
(e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.
(vi) Population Dynamics :
(a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
(b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
(c) Population Policy and family planning.
(d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation :
(a) Crisis of development : displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
(b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
(c) Violence against women.
(d) Caste conflicts.
(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
(f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.


PAPER-I Constitutional and administrative Law :
1. Constitution and Constitutionalism:The distinctive features of the Constitution.
2. Fundamental Rights—Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.
3. Relationship between Fundamental rights, Directive principles and Fundamental duties.
4. Constitutional Position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.
5. Governor and his powers.
6. Supreme Court and the High Courts:
(a) Appointments and transfer.
(b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.
7. Centre, States and local bodies:
(a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States.
(b) Local Bodies.
(c) Administrative relationship among Union, State and Local Bodies.
(d) Eminent domain-State property-common property-community property.
8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.
9. Services under the Union and the States:
(a) Recruitment and conditions of services;Constitutional safeguards; Administrative tribunals.
(b) Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions—Power and functions.
(c) Election Commission—Power and functions.
10. Emergency provisions.
11. Amendment of the Constitution.
12. Principle of Natural Justice—Emerging trends and judicial approach.
13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.
14. Separation of powers and constitutional governance.
15. Judicial review of administrative action.
16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.
International Law :
1. Nature and Definition of International Law.
2. Relationship between International Law and Municipal Law.
3. State Recognition and State Succession.
4. Law of the sea: Inland Waters,Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Continental Shelf,Exclusive Economic Zone and High Seas.
5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human Rights and procedures available for their enforcement.
6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, Extradition and Asylum.
7. Treaties : Formation, application, termination and reservation.
8. United Nations : Its principal organs, powers and functions and reform.
9. Peaceful settlement of disputes—different modes.
10. Lawful recourse to force : aggressions, self-defence, intervention.
11. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law—International conventions and contemporary developments.
12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear nonproliferation treaty, CTST.
13. International Terrorism, State sponsored terrorism, Hijacking, International CriminalCourt.
14. New International Economic Order and Monetary Law : WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.
15. Protection and Improvement of the Human Environment : International Efforts.
PAPER II Law of Crimes :—
1. General principles of Criminal liability : mens rea and actus reus, mens rea in statutory offences.
2. Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment.
3. Preparations and criminal attempt.
4. General exceptions.
5. Joint and constructive liability.
6. Abetment.
7. Criminal conspiracy.
8. Offences against the State.
9. Offences against public tranquility.
10. Offences against human body.
11. Offences against property.
12. Offences against women.
13. Defamation.
14. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
15. Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.
16. Plea bargaining.
Law of Torts
1. Nature and definition.
2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.
3. Vicarious liability including State Liability.
4. General defences.
5. Joint tort fessors.
6. Remedies.
7. Negligence.
8. Defamation.
9. Nuisance.
10. Conspiracy.
11. False imprisonment.
12. Malicious prosecution.
13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law
1. Nature and formation of contract/E-contract.
2. Factors vitiating free consent.
3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
4. Performance and discharge of contracts.
5. Quasi-contracts.
6. Consequences of breach of contract.
7. Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.
8. Contract of agency.
9. Sale of goods and hire purchase.
10. Formation and dissolution of partnership.
11. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
12. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.
13. Standard form contracts.
Contemporary Legal Developments
1. Public Interest Litigation.
2. Intellectual property rights—Concept, types/prospects.
3. Information Technology Law including Cyber Laws—Concept, purpose/prospects.
4. Competition Law—Concept, purpose/prospects.
5. Alternate Dispute Resolution—Concept, types/prospects.
6. Major statutes concerning environmental law.
7. Right to Information Act.
8. Trial by media.


PAPER– I  Political Theory and Indian Politics :
(1) Political theory meaning and approaches
(2) Theories of the state: Liberal, Neoliberal, Marxist, Pluralist, Post-colonial and feminist.
(3) Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques
(4) Equality: Social, political and economic;relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.
(5) Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; concept of Human Rights.
(6) Democracy: Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy – representative, participatory and deliberative.
(7) Concept of power, hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.
(8) Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.
(9) Indian Political Thought:Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist traditions ; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, sriAurobindo, M.K. Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, M.N. Roy .
(10) Western Political Thought :Plato ,Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.
PAPER– II  Comparative Politics and International Relations :
1. Comparative Politics: Nature and major approaches; political economy and political sociology perspectives; limitations of the comparative method.
2. State in comparative perspective: Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and, advanced industrial and developing societies.
3. Politics of Representation and Participation: Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.
4. Globalisation: Responses from developed and developing societies.
5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations: Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.
6. Key concepts in International Relations: National interest, Security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transnational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.
7. Changing International Political Order:
(a) Rise of super powers; strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and Cold War; nuclear threat;
(b) Non-aligned movement : Aims and achievements;
(c) Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.
8. Evolution of the International Economic System: From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World
demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.
9. United Nations: Envisaged role and actual record; specialized UN agencies-aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.
10. Regionalisation of World Politics: EU, ASEAN, APEC, SAARC, NAFTA.
11. Contemporary Global Concerns: Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice, terrorism, nuclear proliferation.
 India and the World:
1. Indian Foreign Policy: Determinants of foreign policy; institutions of policy-making; continuity and change.
2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement: Different phases; current role
3. India and South Asia:
(a) Regional Co-operation: SAARC – past performance and future prospects.
(b) South Asia as a Free Trade Area.
(c) India’s “Look East” policy.
(d) Impediments to regional co-operation: river water disputes; illegal cross-border migration; ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; border disputes.
4. India and the Global South: Relations with Africa and Latin America; leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.
5. India and the Global Centres of Power: USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.
6. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.
7. India and the Nuclear Question: Changing perceptions and policy.
8. Recent developments in Indian Foreign policy: India’s position on the recent crisis in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Israel; vision of a new world order.

What are the books for political science optional to refer for UPSC?

We will approach the sources syllabus wise and recommend Basic sources + Advanced sources for those who are thorough with the basic sources. Please do not try to read three sources for one portion at a time. First cover basic sources for the entire syllabus and then move on to vertical upgradation or value addition. Also apart from reading a source the key to UPSC lies in having command over what you have read. So ensure you read only that much you can revise or that source will not help you in the final exam.
PAPER ONE SECTION A 1) Western political thought Basic source - Ignou, Advanced source - Brian nelson or Subrata Mukherjee. Only one not both.
2) Indian political thought basic source Ignou, Advanced source- VR Mehta.
3) Political Ideology -basic source - OP gauba. Advanced- Andrew heywood political Ideologies.
4) Concepts of liberty,equality, justice, rights, power, democracy, sovereignty - basic source- OP Gauba, Advanced source- Rajeev Bhargava book on political theory.
5) Political theory and approaches - O P Gauba.
PAPER ONE SECTION B 1)Perspectives on Indian National Movement- Ignou
2) For Indian government and politics, Social Movements, Caste, Religion, Ethnicity , Basic source - Ignou booklets and newspapers. Advanced source - Oxford handbook on Indian Politics.
3) For Polity and Indian Constitution Basic Source- Laxmikant ,Advanced source- D Dbasu
PAPER TWO SECTION A 1)Comparative Politics -basic source IGNOU will suffice.
2) Theories and Issues - global politics (Andrew heywood.) - Basic source, Advanced source - Baylis and Smith.
PAPER TWO SECTION B IR you have to refer websites of ORF, MEA, Newspapers, monthly magazines like world focus. Books on foreign policy - Oxford handbook , How India sees the world ( Shyam Saran)